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Cellular Respiration

Key Terms/ Key Words

Home | Key Terms/ Key Words | What happens before cellular respiration? | Glycolysis | Transition Reactions | Kreb's Cycle | The electron transport chain | Fermentation

Below are words and definitions used throughout cellular respiration

Key Terms
Aerobic respiration- A type of respiration in which oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide and water are produced
Anaerobic respiration- a form of incomplete intracellular breakdown of sugar or other organic compounds in the absence of oxygen that releases energy
Glucose- A monosaccharide sugar, C6H12O6, occurring widely in most plant and animal tissue. It is the principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body
Gylcolysis- An ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid
Kreb's cycle- A series of enzymatic reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds, which serve as the main source of cellular energy
Cytoplasm- The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell
Mitochondria- A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy 
Endothermic- Of or relating to a chemical reaction during which there is absorption of heat
Exothermic- Of or relating to a chemical reaction during which heat is released
Glucose-6-phosphate- An essential intermediate formed from glucose and ATP during the metabolism of glucose
Fructose-6-phosphate- a phosphate of fructose C6H13O9P that is formed as an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism and can be reversibly converted to glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate- a diphosphate ester of fructose C6H14O12P2 reversibly formed from fructose-6-phosphate as an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism
Pyruvic acid- A colorless organic liquid, CH3COCOOH, formed as an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism and fermentation and as an end product in glycolysis
Coenzyme A-A coenzyme present in all living cells that functions as an acyl group carrier and is necessary for fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, pyruvate oxidation, and other acetylation reactions
Chemiosmosis- Chemical action taking place through an intervening membrane
Cristae- One of the inward projections or folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
Key Words
Hydrogen- H2O
PGAL- Phosphogylceraldehyde
PGAP- 1,3 phosphoglyceraldehyde
PGA- Phosphoglcerate
PEP- Phosphoenolpyruvate
NADH- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
FADH2- Flavin adenine dinucleotide
ATP- Adenosine tri-phosphate
ADP- Adenosine diphosphate
Carbon Dioxide- CO2
Lactic acid fermentation
Alcoholic fermentation
Transition reactions (oxidative decaroxylation)
Electron Transport chain
Substrate level phosphorylation
Acetyl Co-A